I've been having this problem for about 2 years now and just discovered a possible/probable fix!
Apparently Chrome sync and the iCloud bookmarks manager do not like each other. I disabled the iCloud bookmark manager on on Chrome on my desktop thanks to the suggestion found at this link: https://support.google.com/chrome/thread/89497871/i-have-a-fix-for-duplicated-bookmarks?hl=en
Hopefully that fixes it, but it makes sense that the issue could be cause by that. Hopefully this helps others as well!